http://www.microedu.com 2003-04-26 06:00:34 寄託天下 作者:nbxsk
Recently there is a debate over whether …..Some people assert that.., while other people believe that…As a matter of fact, the issue of whether ….. is a complex and controversial one. Different people hold different views due to their distinct backgrounds. Therefore, there is not a universal answer to this question, and whether one choice takes precedence over the other may quite depend on the specific situation. The decision, nevertheless, is not an easy one to make. Actually, the final judgment should rely on a case-by-case analysis. As far as I am concerned, however, I agree that …. , and do not agree that….. My view can be greatly
substantiated by the following discussions.
The first argument that can be presented to develop my position is that… A good example may be found in the case that… Under this circumstance, it is
In addition, there is another reason for me to choose this statement. The reason is not far to seek…. To illustrate, let us consider that … Hence, another equally important aspect is that….
Admittedly, it may be true that …. in some conditions. However, this alone does not constitute a sufficient support to claim that ….,Actually, these cases are rare and therefore are too specific and too weak to strengthen the view that…When the advantages and disadvantages of x and y are carefully examined, the most striking conclusion is obvious that…
To sum up, due to the above mentioned reasons, which sometimes correlate with each other to generate an integrate whole and thus become more convincing than any single one of them, we may be comfortable to say that …., because….
In this argument, the author concludes that… To support his conclusion, the author points out that…. In addition, the author reasons that… Further more, he also assumes that … . At first glance, the author’s argument appears to be somehow appealing, while a close examination will reveal how groundless it is. We do not have to look very far to see the invalidity of this argument. This argument is problematic for the following reasons.
In the first place, this argument rests on a gratuitous assumption that ….The author unfairly assumes that…. However, the assumption is questionable because the author provides no evidence to support this argument. The arguer fails to take into account other facts that might contribute to the result that …….. It is likely that , ……………..; it is also likely that ………………………… Any of these scenarios, if true, would show that ………………….. (72) Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility.
In the second place, the argument commits a logic fallacy of “after this
and therefore because of this”. In no case can the mere fact that… be
cited as evidence to support the assumption that there is a causal-effect
relationship between A and B. Moreover, that just because B can be
statistically correlated with A does not necessarily mean that A is the
cause of B. In fact, the author has obviously neglected the possibility of
other alternative facts such as…, or … may contribute to a certain extent
to B. It may be only a coincidence that …… . Unless the author can rule
out other factors relevant to …, this assumption in question can not be
In the third place, the evidence that the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is rarely sufficient to establish a general conclusion. Unless the arguer can show that A1 is representative of all A, the conclusion that B… is completely unwarranted. In fact, in face of such limited evidence, it is fallacious to draw any conclusion at all.
In the fourth place, the argument has also committed a false analogy
fallacy. The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in
all respects, and the author assumes without justification that all things
are equal, and that the background conditions have remained the same at
different times or at different locations. There is, however, no guarantee
that this is the case. Nor does the author cite any evidence to support
this assumption. Lacking this assumption, the conclusion that … is
entirely unfounded. In fact, it is highly doubtful that the facts drawn
from B are applicable to A. Differences between A and B clearly out weight
the similarities, thus making the analogy highly less than valid. For
example, A..., however, B.... Thus, it is likely much more difficult for B
In addition, the conclusion unjustifiably relies on the poll while the validity of the survey itself is doubtful. The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative. The claim does not indicate who, when, how and by whom the survey is conducted, neither does it mention what is the sample size, or how the samples are selected. Until these questions are answered
the results are worthless as evidence to support that….
Besides, the author assumes that A and B are mutually exclusive alternatives. However, the author has never offered any reasons or evidences for imposing an either/or choice. Common sense and observation tells us that adjoining both A and B might produce better results.
To sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the author claims. To make the argument more convincing concerning…. , the arguer would have to provide more information that………………. The arguer should also demonstrate that……………….to make this argument logically acceptable. (51)
Since the author commits the above mentioned logical mistakes and fails to consider the whole situation comprehensively, his ideas should not be adopted. The conclusion would be strengthened if he….
In conclusion, the arguer fails to substantiate his claim that …. Because the
evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer
claims. To strengthen the argument, the arguer must convince us that…. In addition,
the arguer could have to provide more precise information to support his claim.
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