Bulgaria Arts and Literature
Arts. – Modern figurative art in Bulgaria does not have a significant tradition behind it, and this contributes to the predominance of a figurative realism of easy and common understanding, enlivened by folkloristic elements and decorative motifs; essentially linked to a naturalistic vision and oriented towards psychological effects. A representative figure of a painting with a narrative-popular spirit is the most famous Bulgarian painter, C. Lavrenov, while the decorative stylization appears in the most original way in the paintings of A. Petrov. The influence of the tradition of icon painting marks the style of D. Vasiljanska, representative of expressionism is D. Uzonov, while the constructivist vision characterizes the paintings of M. Garudis.
Very promising representative of the newest generation is J. Dimov. The Plovdiv school plays an important role in contemporary painting, held together not so much by stylistic unity as by spiritual kinship. Plovdiv is the cradle of the “vazrazhdane”, or the Bulgarian national revival, and this city, of rich tradition and picturesque beauty, is a meeting place of cultures. The spirit of the city and the characteristic folk architecture inspire the painters who work there (A. Baldev, Z. Bojadzsiev, G. Bozhilov, D. Kirov, J. Leviev, E. Pironkov, I. Popvoski, H. Stefanov, K. Vitovski). In graphics, folkloristic and expressive addresses predominate, while in sculpture, alongside the monumental representative sculpture (M. Emanuljova: monument to the Soviets of Sofia, 1953; M. Gheorghijeva, G.
Around the 1960s, various monuments were born with more modern concepts, vigorously modeled (L. Dalcsev, D. Bojkov, L. Necev) or with remarkable expressiveness (V. Starcsev).
In the 1950s, the historicizing style of representation imprints its character on contemporary Bulgarian architecture and this characterizes the majority of public buildings in Sofia. In the 1960s, the modern functional concept predominated, especially in hotel construction (Grand Hotel, Sofia). The most successful examples of this are the modern hotels built along the Bulgarian sea shores, marked by a Mediterranean spirit, adorned with many balconies (Zlatni pjasaci, Slancev brjag, Albena).
According to topschoolsintheusa, the poetry of the generation that grew up between the two wars tends to detach itself from the abstract dreams of symbolism to relate to the concrete reality of daily life and political struggles.
Spontaneous and imaginative Nikola Furnadžijev (1903), in whose poetry echoes the anxieties of the time following the first war. Expression of a romantic, religious passion for the humble and humiliated in life is the poem by Asen Razcvetnikov (1897). In his verses, as in those of Slavčo Krasinski (1907), the influence of imaginism should be noted, which becomes the poetic creed of the period 1925-35 with strong influences also in prose (Karalijčev, Petkanov). Atanas Dalčev, Dimităr Panteleev, and other minors belong to the same trend. A separate mention deserves Hristo Radevski (1905), the most tenacious and the most disciplined, from an ideological point of view, of the followers of Hristo Smirnenski (1898-1923), the creator of so-called proletarian poetry. But above everyone’s
Life agitated by passions and social problems and by political struggles between various parties, struggles that culminated (1934) in a dictatorial regime more or less disguised under democratic appearances, forms the favorite subject of prose writers of this period, when not turn their attention to the simple life of the countryside. Jordan Jovkov (1884-1937) in his short stories idealizes and dignifies the rough life of the countryside; Konstantin Petkanov (1891), writer with a strong epic breath; Angel Karalijčev (1902), fruitful narrator rich in original images; Anton Strašimirov (1872-1937), restless, intelligent, bizarre writer; Georgi Stamatov (1869-1942), who excels in psychological storytelling; Vladimir Poljanov (1899), who tried his hand at short stories, novels and drama; Dimităr Sišmanov (1889-1945), author of original stories full of very fine psychological observation, they are among the names that will be most useful to retain. But we must not forget Anna Kamenova, Orlin Vasilev, Svetoslav Minkov, Georgi Rajčev, Dobri Nemirov, Konstantin Konstantinov. Nikolaj Rajnov (1889) differs from all these and continues to fascinate the reader with the richness of his multifaceted, very fresh ingenuity. The historical novel is cultivated by Stojan Zagorčinov, Fanny Popova-Mutafova and others. very fresh ingenuity. The historical novel is cultivated by Stojan Zagorčinov, Fanny Popova-Mutafova and others. very fresh ingenuity. The historical novel is cultivated by Stojan Zagorčinov, Fanny Popova-Mutafova and others.
The drama still remains in an experimental state and, despite numerous attempts, only the rural dramas of Jovkov, Albena, 1930 and Borjana, 1932, and those of Vladimir Poljanov, Ba š ti i sinove (Fathers and sons, 1938) and Eroica, 1940.
With the political and social upheaval in Bulgaria on 9 September 1944, literature also found itself at a turning point and changed its course. Literary production is as abundant as ever, but quality is not a reason for quantity.
Among the poets Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov (1909-1942), who left two collections of poetry, one of which, posthumously, was awarded the highest literature prize for 1946. Furthermore, Ljudmil Stojanov (1888), passed from the symbolism of his early years to the social theme; Kamen Zidarov, Mladen Isaev and Hristo Radevski, considered today as the best living poet. In prose, more exuberant than lyric but even more immature, stand out, in addition to Ljudmil Stojanov and Gjonko Belev (1889), who gave the best prose work of this very new period (Novi Hora, Gente nuova), Georgi Karaslavov, Stoian Daskalov, Emilijan Stanev and others.