Chile Major Cities
Chile [ t ʃ ile], officially Spanish República de Chile [- t ʃ ile], German Republic of Chile, State in the South West of South America with (2018) 18.7 million residents; The capital is Santiago.
According to Oxfordastronomy, Chilean territory also includes the Juan Fernández Islands, Islas de los Desventurados (San Félix, San Ambrosio, Gonzales), Isla Sala y Gómez and Easter Island. The part of Antarctica claimed by Chile covers 1.25 million km 2.
The Conservative Republic
From 1817 to 1823 B. O’Higgins ruled with dictatorial powers. After his removal, violent disputes broke out over the future political organization of the new republic. They ended with the victory of the Conservatives, the adoption of the new constitution drafted by their leader D. Portales in 1833 and two successive presidencies of General José J. Prieto Vial (* 1786, † 1854; 1831–41). During the presidencies of General M. Bulnes Prieto (1841–51) and General M. Montt (1851–61), both with a conservative-authoritarian character, as well as the liberal republic under José Joaquín Pérez (* 1801, † 1889; 1861–71) the domestic political development was stable compared to the rest of Hispanic America and enabled economic and cultural advancement. New copper and silver mines were opened; found agricultural products – i.a. in California and Australia, which are emerging thanks to gold discoveries – new sales markets; Transport links were improved through the construction of railways and the establishment of shipping and telegraph lines. The expansion of the primary school system aimed to broaden public education; In 1842 the University (Universidad de Chile) was founded in Santiago under the direction of A. Bello. The immigration law of 1845 encouraged the settlement of many Germans.
Valparaíso, [b-], capital of the Valparaíso region, Chile, on a semicircular bay that opens to the north, with (2017) 901 500 residents in the agglomeration of one of the largest cities in Chile.
Seat of the national congress, bishop’s seat; Cultural center with four universities (state, technical, pedagogical and catholic university), Goethe-Institut, among others. Maritime, natural history, marine, art museum. Industry, trade and administration are located on a narrow beach terrace, the residential districts rise up on the slopes of the cliff and are, among other things. Accessible by stairs and inclined lifts. In 2005 the metro was opened. Valparaíso is an important commercial and financial center of Chile as well as the location of many industrial companies: shipyards, foundries, textiles, leather, chemical, food and luxury goods and others. Industry; Tourism; also an important port (especially as an import port, main naval base, contact point for cruise ships).
Earthquakes and fires destroyed the city several times; the colonial buildings were severely damaged by the quake of 1906 and in some cases completely destroyed. Today, the cityscape is dominated by earthquake-proof high-rise buildings made of reinforced concrete in an international design language. The historic district of Valparaíso, typical of urban architecture at the end of the 19th century, has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Valparaíso was founded in 1544 by Pedro de Valdivia as the port of Santiago de Chile. After the South American War of Independence and the release of trade with Europe as well as after the development of California and steam shipping, Valparaíso experienced an economic boom.
Concepción [k ɔ nsεp sj ɔ n], Concepcion, capital of Bíobío, Chile region, as agglomeration (2017) 723 000 residents.
Several state and private universities; i.a. Art museum; catholic archbishop’s seat; Trade and industrial center (food, textile and paper mills, steel mills, oil refineries, chemical industry, wood, fish and metal processing), coal mining partially extinct; Airport.
The cathedral with episcopal palace in neo-Romanesque style was built in 1940-64.
Concepción, founded by Pedro de Valdivia on the coast in 1550, was destroyed by the Araucans in 1555, by earthquakes in 1570, 1730 and 1751 and moved inland in 1755. Chile’s independence was proclaimed in Concepción in 1818. Concepción subsequently suffered severe damage from earthquakes; the earthquake of 1939 (80% of the houses destroyed) was followed by modern reconstruction, but the city was also hit by severe earthquakes in 1960 and 2010.
La Serena, capital of the Coquimbo region, Chile, in the Little North, as an agglomeration (2017) 402,000 residents.
University; Archbishopric; Market place of an irrigated cultivation area, fruit processing; Tourism (listed old town, nearby seaside resort); on the Carretera Panamericana, harbor. In the Andes to the east of La Serena are the European Southern Observatory (on Mount La Silla, 2,400 m above sea level) and the “Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory” (2,200 m above sea level).
La Serena was founded in 1543 by P. de Valdivia and named after his place of birth in Extremadura. In 1549 it was destroyed by the Araucans and immediately rebuilt; In 1552 La Serena received the rights of a Spanish city.
Antofagasta, capital of the Antofagasta region in northern Chile, (2017) 352 600 residents.
Archbishopric; 2 universities. Parts of Bolivia and Argentina’s foreign trade also go through Antofagasta, Chile’s most important export port (especially copper); Industry (ore processing, steel industry, shipyards) and fish processing. Since 1873 railway line to Oruro, Bolivia, 1948 connection to Salta, Argentina; international airport (Cerro Moreno).
Antofagasta was built around 1866 as a port on the Pacific. To the exploited of Chile saltpetre in the then Bolivian province of Antofagasta the flared saltpeter between Chile and the allies Peru and Bolivia. Antofagasta has been part of Chile since 1884.