Crimea, Ukraine

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Crimea , the Ukrainian and Russian Krym, official Ukrainian name Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Russian Avtonomnaja Respublika Krym, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, peninsula and autonomous republic in the south of Ukraine, de facto incorporated into Russia since March 2014, encompassing the Crimean peninsula, 26 081 km 2, (2016) 1.91 million residents (excluding the city of Sevastopol, which does not belong to the Republic of Crimea; peninsula: around 27,000 km 2); The capital is Simferopol.

Most of the Crimea is flat to undulating. In the southern part the Crimean Mountains rise in three stages from north to south and drop off steeply to the coast (bathing coast); the coastal main chain is formed by the Jaila strata, it reaches 1,545 m above sea level in Roman-Kosch. The Crimea is connected to the mainland by the narrow isthmus of Perekop, in the east it narrows to the Kerch peninsula, to the west to the Tarchankut peninsula. It is bounded by the Black Sea to the west and south, and by the Sea of ​​Azov to the east; Submarine oil and gas deposits have been discovered in both seas near the Crimea. – The climate in the lowlands and in the foothills is moderately continental with hot summers (July mean temperature 23–24 ° C), mild winters (January mean temperature + 1 to −2 ° C, with short cold spells −15 to −30 ° C) and 320–470 mm annual precipitation. On the south coast and on the south flank of the Crimean Mountains there is a Mediterranean climate and Mediterranean vegetation. The few rivers, which are arid on average over the year, feed a large number of dams; they secure with the North Crimean Canal and deep wells provide water (including irrigation). The northern slopes of the Crimean Mountains bear beech, oak and hornbeam forests, the Jaila plateaus are steppe grass and shrub vegetation. There are several nature reserves in the mountains and on the coast.

Of the population in 2014 (census), according to iamhigher, 65.3% were Russians, 15.1% Ukrainians, 10.2% Crimean Tatars and 1.0% Belarusians. The proportions of other ethnic groups (Tatars, Armenians and others, including German repatriates from Central Asia) each only reached less than 1.0%. Many ethnic Ukrainians have left the peninsula since the beginning of the 1990s, but especially after the annexation by Russia (2014).

Three quarters of the Crimea (north of the mountains) belong to the steppe region of Ukraine. Large parts are cultivated, they are used in the lowlands and in the foothills for growing cereals (especially wheat), forage crops and vegetables as well as for fruit and viticulture. In the Mediterranean area south of the mountains, wine, fruit, roses and lavender (for the extraction of essential oils) are grown. There, as well as on the southwest coast, there are many seaside resorts, including Yalta (with Alupka and Gurzuf), Evpatorija, Alushta, Pishshane and others. Natural gas is extracted in the west of Crimea, crude oil on the Kerch peninsula, limestones and salts are extracted in the central area and in the north. In addition to the extensive food industry (especially winemaking and processing, fish processing), the chemical industry, mechanical engineering and shipbuilding (especially warships) and stone mining were significant. The largest cities are Simferopol, Sevastopol and Kerch, the most important ports Sevastopol (naval base) and Kerch. The peninsula’s economy is also in a serious crisis due to sanctions from western countries against Russia.

History: Until the 8th century BC The Crimea (Tauride or Scythian Chersonese) was inhabited by the Cimmerians, followed by nomadic Scythians. In the 6th century BC Greeks founded colonies here (including Pantikapaion, Kerch; Theodosia, Feodossija), which spread around 480 BC. United to the Bosporan Empire. In the 1st century BC The Crimea belonged temporarily to the Pontic Empire. Depending on the Roman Empire and was founded in the 4th century AD by Goths, then by Huns, Khazars, Cumans and in 1239 by Mongols (Golden Horde) conquered. However, the coast was under Byzantine control from the 6th to the 13th century, and under Genoese control from 1261/66. In 1443 a formally independent khanate of the Crimean Tatars (Girai dynasty) was established in the Crimea, which in 1475 had to recognize the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire. After the Turkish war in Russia (1768–74) it was declared independent in the peace of Kütschük Kainardschi (1774), but was annexed by Russia in 1783 under Catherine II, and the last Khan Shahin Girai was deposed. 1854–55 the Crimea was the scene of the Crimean War; after the German occupation (April to November 1918) she served in the Russian civil war (1918-21) “white” armies (under Generals A. I. Denikin and P. N. Wrangel) as a base of operations and a retreat. In 1921 it became an ASSR within the RSFSR. In the Second World War 1941-44, the Crimea was again occupied by German troops; After the Soviet reconquest, the Crimean Tatars were deported to Central Asia in 1944 on charges of collaboration with the Germans. The ASSR was dissolved in 1945 and converted into the Crimean Oblast within the RSFSR. In 1954, the Crimea was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. After the rehabilitation of the Crimean Tatars (1967), they were not allowed to return until 1989. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991), the Crimea became an object of controversy between Ukraine and Russia, whose parliament in May 1992 was governed by N. S. Khrushchev’s term of officethe transfer of the peninsula to Ukraine was declared illegal. Territorial issues were mixed up with the problem of the division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet, which has its main base in the Crimea, in Sevastopol. Crimea’s declaration of independence on May 5th, 1992 was withdrawn on May 21st, under pressure from Ukraine; On June 30, 1992, the Ukrainian parliament approved a law that granted the Republic of Crimea extensive autonomy. In the presidential elections in January 1994, which were declared invalid by Ukraine, the chairman of the “Rossija” (German “Russia”) bloc, Yuri Meschkow, who was in favor of the annexation of Crimea to Russia, was elected, elected President with 72.9% of the vote. On March 17, 1995, the Ukrainian Parliament repealed the 1992 Constitution of Crimea and abolished the office of President there. In April 1995 the Ukrainian President placed L. Kuchma under his commandby decree the Crimean government of its direct control (appointment of the prime minister and the government of Crimea subject to its approval). There were CSCE / OSCE mediation efforts. On November 1, 1995, the Crimean Parliament passed a constitution for the peninsula, according to which it is an “Autonomous Republic and an integral part of Ukraine”. The constitution was not accepted in all parts by the central government. The Ukrainian parliament approved a final draft constitution after various amendments on December 23, 1998 (in force since January 12, 1999).

Against the background of the political upheaval in Ukraine in February 2014, resistance was formed in the Crimea by pro-Russian forces that were opposed to the newly formed Ukrainian government. Russian units without national emblems supported the secessionist forces. Airports, government and army buildings were surrounded, thereby influencing the course of political decision-making in Crimea. A pro-Russian Crimean government established on February 27, 2014 under the leadership of Sergei Aksjonow (* 1972) was not recognized by the Ukrainian central government. The Parliament of Crimea scheduled a referendum on March 16, 2014 on the territorial affiliation of Crimea. The Crimean parliament declared independence on March 11, 2014. In the controversial referendum, which took place without independent international control, around 96.8% of the voters, according to the Crimean electoral authority, were in favor of joining Russia. Ukraine saw the referendum as a violation of the Ukrainian constitution. The USA and the EU did not recognize the plebiscite either, as it was contrary to international law. On March 18, 2014 a treaty for the annexation of Sevastopol and Crimea to Russia was signed. The Russian legislative bodies Duma and Federation Council ratified the treaty on March 20 and 21, 2014 respectively. The Crimea and Sevastopol were incorporated into Russia as new federal subjects, which immediately took full military control of the peninsula and introduced the ruble as its currency. On April 11th, 2014, the Crimean parliament adopted a new constitution, in which membership of Russia was established. In July 2016, Russia incorporated Crimea and Sevastopol into the South Federal District.

Crimea, Ukraine

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