With the founding of the French Community in 1958, Madagascar opted for status of autonomous Republic within the Community itself (10 October 1958), thus gaining full independence on 26 June 1960. Tsiranana established a presidential and authoritarian regime that lasted a decade, but the situation precipitated in the spring of 1972 causing the ouster of Tsiranana and the assumption of power by General Ramanantsoa, legitimized by the referendum of 8 October 1972. In 1975 Ramanantsoa resigned and passed on his powers to Colonel R. Ratsimandrava, who was assassinated a week after taking office. A military government was then established, presided over by General G. Andriamahazo, but in December 1975 power was taken over by Didier Ratsiraka which transformed the country into a Marxist-type People’s Republic. A referendum legitimized the passage to the presidency of Ratsiraka and approved the new Constitution and the Charter of the Malagasy Socialist Revolution. In 1976, the AREMA party (Avant-garde de la Révolution Malgache) which took more and more power in the country. In 1982 the presidential elections took place, won again by Ratsiraka, while in 1983 the legislative ones saw the repetition of the success of AREMA. In the course of the Eighties there was an accentuation of social tensions favored by the deterioration of the economic situation. To address the latter, a significant liberalization policy was undertaken, which only towards the beginning of the new decade did it also extend to the political system. Ratsiraka was reconfirmed in office in March 1989, in 1990 the government restored multi-partyism and abolished censorship. In May 1991 a draft revision of the Constitution was submitted to the National People’s Assembly, but this was not enough to stop the protest of the opposition, gathered in the Committee of Living Forces (FV), chaired by Albert Zafy.
According to remzfamily, the political crisis in Madagascar officially ended on November 23, 1991 with the entry into operation of the State High Authority, a body chaired by Albert Zafy, which, by allowing President Ratsiraka to remain in office, formed a provisional government, led by M. Guy Razanamasy. A new Constitution was approved by referendum in August 1992, and in February 1993 the presidential elections were held, won by Zafy. The transition phase to the new Republic ended after a few months with the election of the National Assembly and the appointment of Francisque Ravony as prime minister (August 1993). In September 1995, the result of an institutional referendum wanted by President Zafy and instead opposed by Ravony actually expanded the powers of the head of state, recognizing him the right (previously due to the National Assembly) to appoint and dismiss the prime minister, but the president Malagasy, if he had succeeded in ousting Ravony by replacing him with Emmanuel Rakotovahiny, he had to deal with the National Assembly. The deputies, in fact, irritated by the act by which they had been expropriated by the most important constitutional prerogative, voted with a large majority (July 1996) to impeach Zafy for attacking the Constitution and entrusted the if he had succeeded in ousting Ravony by replacing him with Emmanuel Rakotovahiny, he had to deal with the National Assembly. The deputies, in fact, irritated by the act by which they had been expropriated by the most important constitutional prerogative, voted with a large majority (July 1996) to impeach Zafy for attacking the Constitution and entrusted the if he had succeeded in ousting Ravony by replacing him with Emmanuel Rakotovahiny, he had to deal with the National Assembly. The deputies, in fact, irritated by the act by which they had been expropriated by the most important constitutional prerogative, voted with a large majority (July 1996) to impeach Zafy for attacking the Constitution and entrusted the interim Presidential to the new Prime Minister Norbert Ratsirohanana who recently succeeded the resigning Rakotovahiny.
In December 1996, following new presidential elections, D. Ratsiraka (in office from 1975 to 1991) was re-elected and his party won the 1998 legislative elections with the consequent formation of a new government led by Tantely Andrianarivo. In the presidential elections of December 2001 Ratsiraka was challenged by the mayor of Antananarivo, Marc Ravalomanana: the latter, according to official counts, obtained more votes than the outgoing president. Ratsiraka asked for a second round of ballot, while Ravalomanana proclaimed himself president of the Republic at the end of February 2002. With the support of the population of the capital, Ravalomanana took office in the presidential palace and appointed a new government. Ratsiraka was forced to leave Antananarivo. In April 2002 the Constitutional Court proclaimed Ravalomanana president, thus legitimizing the disputed electoral result of December 2001. After international recognition (in particular by the USA and France), President Ravalomanana ordered the army to occupy Tamatave, the last stronghold of the former president D. Ratsiraka: the city surrendered to the regular army without resisting and Ratsiraka took refuge in France. In 2003 Ravalomanana decided to introduce, as national currency, the ariary, which replaced the Malagasy franc. With the presidential consultations of 2006 Ravalomanana was reconfirmed with 54.8% of the vote. In March 2009, a coup d’état interrupted the legislature of Ravalomanana: Andry Rajoelina was proclaimed president of the Transitional High Authority and dissolved parliament. Madagascar was thus suspended from African Union and the coup condemned by major international organizations. In November, President A. Rajoelina and deposed M. Ravalomanana signed an agreement in Addis Ababa for the creation of a government of national unity and new elections, but in 2010 the former President Ravalomanana was sentenced to life in prison for having ordered the army to fire on protesters (February 2009). In 2013, Hery Rajaonarimampianina was elected president.