Political system. – The current constitution of the Mexican Republic, a further evolution in an even more radical sense (especially from an economic and social point of view) than that of the Mexican United States of 1857, which, compiled on the model of the American, already embodied the most democratic principles in earthenware of individual freedom, popular sovereignty and state secularism, dating from 1917 with the amendments made to it in 1929. By virtue of it, Mexico constitutes a federal republic, composed of states (currently 28), territories (currently 2 including the Lower Califomia) and a federal district (the capital, Mexico City, with 11 surrounding townships). Each state has its own constitution, government, legislation, finance, judiciary, but is also bound by federal laws; while the territories and the federal district have the first governors and the second head of the department by presidential nomination. As for the federal system, having established a clear division between the executive, legislative and judicial powers, the constitution attributes the first to a president, who is elected by direct popular suffrage, remains in office for 4 years, and cannot be re-elected: in the event of vacancy of the presidential seat, it is up to the assembled Congress to elect a provisional president until the expiry of the current presidential term. Under the direction of the president, the government is entrusted to the Council of Ministers, which manages federal services through 8 secretaries of state in charge of the usual branches of public administration and 4 state departments who manage special services (state supplies, public debt, statistics, hygiene). Legislative power belongs to a congress, composed of a chamber of representatives, elected by universal suffrage at the rate of one every 100,000 residents and for the duration of two years (currently 185) and a senate, composed of two senators for each state and for the federal district, elected as the representatives (currently 58): the Congress sits as a rule from 1 September to 31 December, but in the interval between sessions it is represented by a standing committee of 14 senators and 15 representatives elected by the respective chambers. Finally, the judiciary power resides in a Supreme Court of Justice of the nation, elected by Congress and which is headed by circuit courts (currently 8) and, under these, district courts, in addition to the High Court of Justice of the federal district. Even in judicial legislation, as in political systems, the more liberal principles prevail. The financial system rests on the division of public revenues and expenditures between federation and states; coming from the income of the former, as well as from the real direct taxes collected by it, from 25% of the personal and miscellaneous taxes collected by the states and municipalities. For Mexico government and politics, please check a2zgov.com.
The 1917 constitution, however, is not only a political constitution, but also an economic-social one; having also sought to resolve the fundamental problems of national life with it: relations between the State and the Church; land structure; relations between capital and labor; rights and duties of foreigners. As for the first: guarantee of full freedom of conscience in religious matters, but nationalization of religious buildings or similar institutions, unless they are granted by the government for purposes of worship; clear separation between Church and State; absolute exclusion of the clergy from teaching as well as from any social institution, hospital or other. In land matters, nationalization of soil and subsoil, in the sense of reserving (in principle) only to Mexican citizens (by birth or naturalization) or to Mexican companies the right to acquire ownership of land or water or to obtain concessions for mining, hydraulics, oil, etc.; setting by the individual states of the maximum area possessed by an individual and obligation to sell the remainder in the ways and conditions to be determined; fixing by the individual states of the surface of the earth to be constituted as a family property, inalienable and inseparable. As for the relationship between capital and labor, block approval of the 8 hours a day of work, prohibition of child labor and strict limitation of that of adolescents and women; labor protection in factories and mines and social insurance for invalidity, old age, accidents, etc.; formal recognition of the right to strike (such as a lockout) provided they are legal, i.e. immune from coercion or violence, even in public services (with the only obligation, in this case, to give 10 days’ notice to the conciliation and arbitration office), conciliation and arbitration in disputes between capital and labor; finally, the fixing of the wages of the workers and their participation in the profits in an amount to be fixed by a special municipal commission and submitted to the central conciliation office of the relevant state. As for foreigners, national faculty to derogate in their favor from the right of exclusive relevance or concession to nationals of land, water, mines, oil fields, etc., provided that the foreigners consent before the Department of Foreign Affairs to be considered Mexican in respect of this property and not to invoke the protection of their governments with respect to it, under penalty of Mexican confiscation of the properties thus acquired; absolute prohibition of land, mining or water ownership to foreigners within a radius of 100 km. from the land borders and 50 from the shores of the sea.