Poland has been turning every stone in education, research and innovation policy since 2016. The universities will be reformed, the academic career will be modernized, and in future cross-border mobility will be ensured by its own funding institution based on the model of the DAAD. Germany occupies a leading position as a cooperation partner in science and technology.
Population / geography
|Country name||Rzeczpospolita PolskaRepublic of Poland
Short form: Poland / Poland
|Land area||312,678 km²|
|Population||38,282,325(Estimate July 2020)|
|Life expectancy||Men: 74.5 yearsWomen: 82.3 years
|Age structure||0-14 years: 14.83%15-64 years: 66.45%
older than 65: 18.72%
|Growth of population||-0.19%(2020 estimate)|
|Population groups||Poland 96.9%Read 1.1%
|Languages||Polish (official language), Silesian|
|Religions||Catholics 85.9%Orthodox 1.3%
no information 12.1%
|National day||May 3, 1791 first Polish constitutionNovember 11, 1918 independence|
|Time zone||CET (UTC + 1);March to October: CET + 1 (UTC + 2)|
|Currency||1 zloty PLN / 100 groszyCurrent exchange rate at OANDA.com – Currency converter (see links below)|
Politics / Administration
|Country name||Rzeczpospolita PolskaRepublic of Poland|
|Form of government||Parliamentary democracy with a bicameral parliament|
|Head of state||Andrzej DudaPresident since August 6, 2015, confirmed in the second ballot on July 12, 2020|
|Head of government||Mateusz MorawieckiPrime Minister since December 11, 2017, confirmed in office after the parliamentary elections on November 15, 2019|
|Vice Prime Minister||Jarosław Kaczyński (since October 6, 2020) and Jaroslaw Gowin (until April 8 and since October 6, 2020), Jacek Sasin and Piotr Gliński|
|Foreign Minister||Zbigniew Rau (since August 26, 2020)|
|Economics Minister||Jaroslaw Gowin (Minister for Economic Development, Labor and Technology, since October 6, 2020)|
|Education and Science Minister||Przemysław Czarnek (since October 19, 2020)|
|Houses of Parliament||Bicameral parliamentSejm (460 seats)
Senate (100 seats)
|Ruling party||since November 2019 government coalition of law and justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość – PiS), Understanding / Entente (Porozumienie) and Solidarity Poland (Solidarna Polska)|
|Opposition parties||Citizens’ platform PO: liberal-conservative (incumbent party leader Ewa Kopacz); Kukiz15: protest party (party chairman Paweł Kukiz); Nowoczesna (Modern Poland): economically liberal (party chairman Ryszard Petru); Polish People’s Party PSL (so-called Peasant Party), conservative-liberal (party leader Władysław Kosiniak-Kamysz). Three non-attached MPs, including one from the German minority (Ryszard Galla).|
|Administrative structure||Central administration system with elements of regional / local self-administration16 Voivodships (Wojewodztwo / Wojewodztwa): Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Pomorskielskie, Zacholskie Mazni-kie, Zechdorskie, Zecheknie-Zecheknie, Zecheknie-Warmskie
379 districts, 2478 parishes
According to Digopaul.com, the Republic of Poland is a parliamentary democracy with presidential elements, which is committed to the principles of the constitutional and social state and which maintains ideological neutrality.
State organs are the President, the Council of Ministers and the Parliament. The President , who is directly elected for five years , also has certain executive powers: he is the highest commander in command of the armed forces and has certain rights to participate in foreign policy. He can veto proposed legislation, which can only be overruled by parliament with a three-fifths majority.
The Council of Ministers (government) directs domestic and foreign policy. He is elected by parliament with an absolute majority and can only be overthrown by a constructive vote of no confidence. The chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) can appoint and dismiss ministers.
The parliament consists of two chambers, the Sejm (460 members) and the Senate (100 senators); the Sejm is elected according to proportional representation, the Senate according to majority voting for four years.