Turkmenistan Society

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Turkmenistan is a Central Asian country located between Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan. It is the second largest country in Central Asia by area and population-wise it is the fourth most populous. The capital city of Turkmenistan is Ashgabat. Turkmenistan’s society is largely based on traditional values with an emphasis on hospitality and respect for elders.

The population of Turkmenistan is composed of several ethnic groups including Turkmens, Uzbeks, Russians, Kazakhs, and other smaller ethnicities. The majority of the population practice Sunni Islam as their religion. The official language of Turkmenistan is Turkmen which belongs to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages family. However, Russian and Uzbek are also widely spoken in certain parts of the country.

Turkmen society revolves around strong family ties and traditional values such as hospitality and respect for elders. Traditional hospitality among families extends to strangers too; if a person enters someone’s house they will be offered tea or food regardless of their social status or wealth.

Education in Turkmenistan is free up to secondary level with literacy rates standing at 99%. Education emphasizes rote memorization rather than critical thinking skills but there are some universities that offer higher education such as the International University for Humanities and Development in Ashgabat which offers courses in English language studies, economics, law, engineering etc.

Family life in Turkmenistan traditionally centers on large extended families living together under one roof although this has become less common due to urbanization and increased mobility amongst younger generations who often prefer to live independently from their families. Marriage customs are similar to those found throughout Central Asia with arranged marriages being more common than love marriages although this too has been changing in recent years especially amongst younger generations who are more open to love marriages than earlier generations were.

Gender roles have traditionally been very strict with women expected to take care of household duties while men work outside the home; however these roles have become less rigid over time especially amongst younger generations who often see themselves as equals regardless of gender. Women have also gained greater access to education which has enabled them to enter more professional fields such as engineering or medicine where they can earn equal wages compared to men doing similar work.

Turkmen culture places a high value on respect for elders regardless of gender or social status; elder members (especially those within one’s own family) must be given deference at all times even if they do not necessarily agree with what someone else says or does. Additionally, guests must be welcomed with food and drink no matter how long they stay or where they come from. These customs show that respect for family members and strangers alike are important values in Turkemn society.

Turkmenistan Society

Demographics of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is a country located in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. According to wholevehicles.com, it is home to 5.2 million people with a population density of 16 people per square kilometer. The majority of the population is made up of ethnic Turkmens who make up 85 percent of the population. The remaining 15 percent are made up of Uzbeks (6%), Russians (5%) and other minorities such as Kurds, Balochs and Tatars. The official language of Turkmenistan is Turkmen which is spoken by almost all citizens.

The life expectancy at birth in Turkmenistan stands at 69 years for males and 74 years for females as per 2019 estimates. According to data from 2018, about 79% of adults aged 25-64 have completed secondary education or higher while 20% have only completed primary education or less. The unemployment rate in Turkmenistan stood at 2% in 2019 with around 1 million citizens employed in various sectors such as agriculture, industry and services. Around 28% are employed in agriculture, 23% in industry and 49% work in services sector according to World Bank data from 2018. The average annual income stands at $4132 per capita with 18% living below national poverty line as per 2018 data from World Bank.

Poverty in Turkmenistan

Poverty in Turkmenistan is an ongoing issue that has been exacerbated by the nation’s economic policies and the effects of climate change. The World Bank estimated in 2018 that 18% of the population lives below the national poverty line, which is defined as living on less than $4.20 per day. This number has been steadily increasing since 2010 when it stood at 13%. In rural areas, this figure rises to 23%. Poverty affects all ethnic groups in Turkmenistan but is particularly acute among ethnic minorities such as Uzbeks, Russians and Kurds.

The main causes of poverty in Turkmenistan are low wages, a lack of employment opportunities, poor educational attainment and a lack of access to basic services such as health care and sanitation. Low wages are a major problem in Turkmenistan, with the average annual income standing at just over $4132 per capita according to World Bank data from 2018. This is far lower than neighboring countries such as Kazakhstan ($8500) or Uzbekistan ($6200). Furthermore, there is a large gap between urban and rural incomes with those living in urban areas earning significantly more than those living in rural areas. This disparity is compounded by a lack of employment opportunities outside major cities which further exacerbates poverty levels in rural areas.

In addition to low wages and lack of employment opportunities, poor educational attainment also contributes to poverty levels in Turkmenistan. According to data from 2018, only 79% of adults aged 25-64 have completed secondary education or higher while 20% have only completed primary education or less. This has resulted in many people being unable to find higher-paying jobs which can help them escape poverty. Furthermore, those with higher educational attainment are more likely to be employed thus furthering the wealth gap between educated and uneducated populations.

Finally, access to basic services is also limited for many people living in poverty across Turkmenistan due to both financial constraints as well as geographical location. Many rural areas do not have access to adequate health care facilities or safe drinking water due to their remote location which further compounds their poverty levels.

Overall, poverty remains an ongoing issue for many citizens of Turkmenistan despite recent efforts by the government to address it through various social welfare programs such as free health care for children under 18 years old and free university tuition for students from low-income families. However, these efforts are not enough on their own and more needs to be done if real progress towards reducing poverty levels is going to be made.

Labor Market in Turkmenistan

According to Countryvv, the labor market in Turkmenistan is largely characterized by a large population of unemployed people. Approximately 25% of the country’s workforce is unemployed, and around 65% of the population lives below the poverty line. The country has a high rate of underemployment, with many people working in jobs that are not commensurate with their educational qualifications or skills. This has resulted in an overall decrease in wages, making it difficult for people to make ends meet. Despite this, there are some areas where the labor market is more favorable, such as in the oil and gas industry and other natural resource-related businesses. The government has also implemented various policies to encourage foreign investment and promote job creation. For example, it has reduced taxes on businesses operating in certain sectors and offered incentives to employers for hiring local workers. Additionally, the government provides vocational training programs for those seeking employment or wanting to improve their skillset. These measures have helped to improve the overall labor market situation in Turkmenistan over time.

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